India's climate finance requirements are enormous. Public finance can play a catalytic role in combating climate change and in meeting the target set under India's Nationally Determined Contributions. When combined with private financing and international climate finance, public finance can push climate change related mitigation and adaptation related activities in India. Governments at the sub-national level in India are already focusing on developing and implementing instruments and policy measures to finance climate action. Shakti is supporting research activities that are designed to assess and improve the performance of these measures.