September 17, 2015
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)
At the 19th session of the Conference of Party (COP) under UNFCCC held in Warsaw in November 2013, all Parties were invited to initiate or intensify domestic preparations for their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) towards achieving the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, without prejudice to the legal nature of the contributions, in the context of adopting a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties. Parties were invited to communicate to the UNFCCC secretariat their INDCs well in advance of COP 21 (by the first quarter of 2015 by those Parties ready to do so) in a manner that facilitates the clarity, transparency and understanding of the INDC.
Following are selected excerpts from the INDCs submitted by some of the major developed and developing countries:
||India announced its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution earlier this month, keeping in view, it’s developmental agenda of eradicating poverty besides taking the low carbon path to economic growth and progress. Following are key takeaways:
- To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 level.
- To achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from Green Climate Fund (GCF).
- To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
To achieve the above, India will continue with its on-going interventions, enhance the existing policies and launch new initiatives in the following priority areas:
- Introducing new, more efficient and cleaner technologies in thermal power generation.
- Promoting renewable energy generation and increasing the share of alternative fuels in overall fuel mix.
- Reducing emissions from transportation sector.
- Promoting energy efficiency in the economy, notably in industry, transportation, buildings and appliances.
- Reducing emissions from waste.
- Developing climate resilient infrastructure.
- Full implementation of Green India Mission and other programmes of afforestation.
- Planning and implementation of actions to enhance climate resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change.
The National Missions under the NAPCC have also been restructured, in the light of new scientific information and technological advances and identified new missions on wind energy, health, waste to energy, and coastal areas. India is also redesigning the National Water Mission and National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture.
||Achieve an economy-wide target to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 30% below 2005 levels by 2030.
Reaching this ambitious target will require new policies in additional sectors and coordinated continental action in integrated sectors. Canada may also use international mechanisms to achieve the target, subject to robust systems that deliver real and verified emissions reductions.
||Based on its national circumstances, development stage, sustainable development strategy and international responsibility, China has nationally determined its actions by 2030 as follows:
- To achieve the peaking of carbon dioxide emissions around 2030 and making best efforts to peak early
- To lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 60% to 65% from the 2005 level
- To increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20%
- To increase the forest stock volume by around 4.5 billion cubic meters on the 2005 level
Moreover, China will continue to proactively adapt to climate change by enhancing mechanisms and capacities to effectively defend against climate change risks in key areas such as agriculture, forestry and water resources, as well as in cities, coastal and ecologically vulnerable areas and to progressively strengthen early warning and emergency response systems and disaster prevention and reduction mechanisms.
|European Union and its 28 Member States
||Committed to a binding target of an at least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990, to be fulfilled jointly, as set out in the conclusions by the European Council of October 2014.No contribution from international credits.
||A reduction of 26% by fiscal year (FY) 2030 compared to FY 2013 (25.4% reduction compared to FY 2005) (approximately 1.042 billion t-CO2 eq. as 2030 emissions), ensuring consistency with its energy mix, set as a feasible reduction target by bottom-up calculation with concrete policies, measures and individual technologies taking into adequate consideration, inter alia, technological and cost constraints, and set based on the amount of domestic emission reductions and removals assumed to be obtained.The Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) is not included as a basis of the bottom-up calculation of Japan’s emission reduction target, but the amount of emission reductions and removals acquired by Japan under the JCM will be appropriately counted as Japan’s reduction. Apart from contributions achieved through private-sector based projects, accumulated emission reductions or removals by FY 2030 through governmental JCM programs to be undertaken within the government’s annual budget are estimated to be ranging from 50 to 100 million t-CO2. As part of international contributions other than the JCM, worldwide emission reduction potential in FY 2030 through the diffusion of leading technologies by Japanese industries’ actions is estimated to be at least 1 billion t-CO2. Japan will also actively contribute internationally towards, inter alia, human resource development and promotion of development and diffusion of technologies relating to emission reductions in developing countries.
||Mexico’s INDC is consistent with its pathway to reduce 50% of emissions by the year 2050, with respect to the year 2000, as mandated by the Mexico´s General Climate Change Law. Unconditional Reduction:
- Mexico is committed to reduce unconditionally 25% of its Greenhouse Gases and Short Lived Climate Pollutants emissions (below BAU scenario of emission projections based on economic growth in the absence of climate change policies, starting from 2013) for the year 2030. This commitment implies a reduction of 22% of GHG and a reduction of 51% of Black Carbon.
- This commitment implies a net emissions peak starting from 2026, decoupling GHG emissions from economic growth: emissions intensity per unit of GDP will reduce by around 40% from 2013 to 2030.
- The 25% reduction commitment expressed above could increase up to a 40% in a conditional manner, subject to a global agreement addressing important topics including international carbon price, carbon border adjustments, technical cooperation, access to low-cost financial resources and technology transfer, all at a scale commensurate to the challenge of global climate change.
- Within the same conditions, GHG reductions could increase up to 36%, and Black Carbon reductions to 70% in 2030.
Mexico includes an Adaptation component with commitments by 2030. The priority of these actions are: the protection of communities from adverse impacts of climate change, such as extreme hydro meteorological events related to global changes in temperature; as well as the increment in the resilience of strategic infrastructure and of the ecosystems that host national biodiversity. In order to reach those priorities Mexico will, inter alia, strengthen the adaptive capacity of at least by 50% the number of municipalities in the category of “most vulnerable”, establish early warning systems and risk management at every level of government and reach a rate of 0% deforestation by the year 2030. Some of the adaptation actions presented foster positive synergies with mitigation actions.
|Republic of Korea
||Reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 37% from the business-as-usual (BAU, 850.6 MtCO2eq) level by 2030 across all economic sectors.Korea will partly use carbon credits from international market mechanisms to achieve its 2030 mitigation target, in accordance with relevant rules and standards.
||Limiting anthropogenic greenhouse gases in Russia to 70-75% of 1990 levels by the year 2030 might be a long-term indicator, subject to the maximum possible account of absorbing capacity of forests.The INDC is to be achieved with no use of international market mechanisms.
|United States of America
||Achieve an economy-wide target of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28 per cent below its 2005 level in 2025 and to make best efforts to reduce its emissions by 28%.At this time, the United States does not intend to utilize international market mechanisms to implement its 2025 target.
Other Parties that have submitted their INDCs to the UNFCCC Secretariat as of 27 July 2015 include: Andorra, Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Gabon, Iceland, Kenya, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Morocco, New Zealand, Norway, Serbia, Singapore, and Switzerland