Best Practices for Traffic Signal Operations in India

Sector Systems and Planning
Grantee IBI Consultancy India Private Limited
Year 2016

The report consists of best practices that could be implemented at a rule-of-thumb level to improve the efficiency of traffic signals in terms of vehicle handling capacity and reduction in delays, vehicles idling and emissions. It can be used by personnel involved in management of traffic in cities particularly the traffic police.

Tagged Under Traffic Signal Operations

  • Review of Comprehensive Mobility Plans
  • This report provides a framework to review the Comprehensive Mobility Plans (CMPs) developed by the cities and assess if they promote sustainable transport systems.

  • Integrating intermediate public transport within transport regulation in a mega-city: Kolkata
  • This report documents the regulatory practices adopted in Kolkata Metropolitan Region towards integration of Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) with other modes of transport. It also details the role of various stakeholders- regulators, service providers and users that are key to IPT systems in Kolkata.

  • Public Bicycle Sharing System DPR- Dwarka
  • Detailed project report on design, planning and implementation of Public Bicycle Sharing (PBS) System in Dwarka sub-city, Delhi. The DPR include details on data collection and analysis, travel demand assessment, feasibility analysis, technical specifications for bicycles, stations, docks, terminals and streets and intersections, financial and operational models and an implementation plan.

  • Public Bicycle Sharing System DPR- South Delhi
  • Detailed project report on design, planning and implementation of Public Bicycle Sharing (PBS) System in South Delhi. The DPR include details on data collection and analysis, travel demand assessment, feasibility analysis, technical specifications for bicycles, stations, docks, terminals and streets and intersections, financial and operational models and an implementation plan.

  • Public Private Partnership (PPP) models for development of sustainable urban transport systems
  • The report is a detailed analysis of five sustainable urban transport projects that have the highest potential for successful Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements. These projects are: city bus operations, bus terminals, Intelligent Transport Systems, Public Bicycle Sharing (PBS) Schemes and street infrastructure. The report details out the key enablers and disablers that are likely to influence the success of PPP in these projects under the following areas: policy and institutional, planning and design, contractual arrangements and project implementation. Based on the analysis, the report proposes PPP models for each project category and detailed action-oriented recommendations for their successful implementation. Each proposed PPP model is backed by a feasibility analysis including financial feasibility, operational efficiency and the rules and responsibility of both the public and private sector under the PPP model.

  • Land use-transport integration for sustainable urbanism
  • Land use policies and development control regulations adopted by a city have a significant impact on its mobility patterns. Development plans that limit population densities within city boundaries by imposing limits on built up areas, cause city to sprawl to accommodate the land requirements of a rapidly growing city population. Sprawls lead to increased trip lengths, higher usage of private vehicles and consequently higher transport induced emissions in a city. While most of Indian cities are following this trend, few cities have realised these impacts and have made revisions to their development plans to allow for higher densities and built up areas within city limits. Accordingly, this report presents how the existing city planning processes followed by many cities have led to developments that discourage sustainable transport behaviour and argues for integrating land use and transportation for achieving sustainable urbanisation. The report also documents the land use policies, development control regulations and their impact on transport demand management in case cities of Pune, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad and Delhi. The report captures Geographic Information System (GIS) based travel demand modelling for the city of Rajkot to test and compare the advantages and disadvantages of the land use policies in these five cities.

  • Roadmap for improving city bus systems in India
  • The report presents a detailed analysis of existing practices and challenges faced by operating agencies in 12 cities of varying population size, geographical location and type of the city bus system. Recommendations are proposed in six key intervention areas: i) strategic planning, ii) technology improvement, iii) operational processes, iv) bus transport infrastructure, v) institutional and contracting frameworks and vi) funding and implementation. Each recommendation under these intervention areas is accompanied by the timelines for adoption and implementation, the resource requirements and institutional roles and responsibilities.

  • Bus Terminal Design Guidelines
  • Bus terminals are critical to ensure smooth operations of the city bus systems. Their handling capacity determines the total fleet that can operate within the city and the ease with which terminals facilitate multi-modal passenger activity and interchanges between different bus routes, regional buses and city buses, between private and para-transit services and buses determines the bus ridership. Therefore, it is important that terminal designs maximize the number of buses and passengers handled and facilitate seamless passenger interchanges between different modes. To promote designs that meet these objectives, Shakti supported the development of guidelines for design of bus terminals of different capacity and functions. The guidelines are based on best practices adopted for development of terminals and have been pilot tested for designing of four terminals.

  • Developing innovative public transport information systems
  • The mode share of buses in Indian cities has been declining over the years. A reason for this is that passengers do not have enough information on bus operations such bus routes, stops and the expected arrival time. This makes the system unreliable forcing passengers to use private modes of transport. To retain and increase the mode share of buses, it is essential that bus users are provided with real-time, accurate and reliable information on bus operations. To address this need, we’ve invested in the development of an innovative passenger information system that uses Information Technology (IT) based web and mobile applications, using Hyderabad as a case city. Data was collected through flock sourcing and a special app called Routemaster was developed specifically for this purpose. Data collected through the app was later converted to General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) format, the international standard to represent bus operations data. This data collection methodology and the mobile application (available online) can be replicated to generate similar bus information systems in other cities.

  • Review of data maintenance practices of State Road Transport Undertakings (STUs)
  • State Road Transport Undertakings (STUs) operate and manage inter-city and intra-city public bus services in India. In the process, they generate huge amounts of data on route planning, ticketing, fare collection, fleet management, asset management etc. The quality and quantity of this data has increased exponentially with the introduction of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for bus operations. This data can be utilised by the STUs to improve their operations and thereby customer satisfaction and revenue generation performance. Recognizing this, we supported a review of the existing data maintenance practices and performance measurement indicators of STUs to see where improvements could be made. Based on this review and also drawing from international practices, this report has proposed i) a new set of performance measurement indicators, ii) use of technology for data collection and iii) new indicators for data reporting.

Energy Efficiency
Climate Policy